Word Family Friday: Trans-

Teaser: through, avatar, trans-, nectar

Proto-Indo-European <*terh₂->, <*treh₂->: “to cross over, pass through, overcome”
-> Celtic <*ter>
–> Irish <thar>: “over, by, past, through, beyond”
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Sanskrit <तरति> (tarati): “pass over, float, swim*
—> Hindi <तैराना> (tairānā): “to float”*
—> Sanskrit <अवतार> (avatāra): “avatar, appearance of a deity on earth, distinguished person” (“down-cross”, “descended from the sky”)
—-> Hindi <अवतार> (avtār): “descent, respected person, translation, incarnation”
—-> English <avatar>
—-> Telugu <అవతారము> (avatāramu): “avatar, incarnation, metamorphosis”
—-> Thai <อวตาร> (à-wá-dtaan): “avatar, monarch, sock puppet”
—–> Thai <พงศาวดาร> (pong-sǎa-wá-daan): “lineage of kings, history, (biblical book of) Chronicles”
—?> Japanese <あまくだり> (amakudari): “avatar, descent from heaven, to award a high-level bureaucrat with a high-paying job after retirement”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*tr̥h₂-n̥t-s> (resultative?, ~”the other side”)
–> Celtic
—> Irish <trá>: “then, indeed, however”
–> Italic
—> Latin <trāns>: “across, beyond”
—-> Transylvania (beyond the woods)
—-> French <très>: “very”
—-> Spanish <tras>: “after, beyond”
—-> English <trans-> “Across, through, over, beyond, to or on the other side of, outside of”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*térh₂-dʰrom> (instrumentive, equivalent to “through-tron”)
–> Hellenic
—> Ancient Greek <τέρθρον> (térthron): “end, extremity, end of the sail-yard”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*néḱ-tr̥h₂>: “death-overcome, unperishing”**
–> Hellenic
—> Greek <νέκταρ> (néktar): “drink of the gods, nectar”**
—-> Latin <nectar>: “nectar”
—–> English <nectar>
—–> Italian <nettare>: “nectar”
—–> Russian <некта́р> (nektár): “nectar”
-> Proto-Indo-European
–> Celtic
—> Irish <trí>: “through”
—> Welsh <drwy>: “through, by means of”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*terh₂-kʷe> (distributive “through-and” or “through-each”)
–> Germanic <*þurhw>, <*þerhw>: “through”
—> English <through>, <thorough>
—> German <durch>: “through, via, by means of”
—-> Yiddish <דורך> (durkh): “through”
—> Gothic <𐌸𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌷> (þairh): “through”

?> Proto-Indo-European <*térmn̥>: “boundary”
–> Hellenic
—> Ancient Greek <τέρμα> (térma): “finish line, goal, conclusion”
—> Latin <terminus>: “boundary, limit, end”
—-> English <terminus>
—-> French <terme>: “limit, period of time, word or phrase especially in a specialized field”
—–> English <term> (all meanings)
——> Norwegian, Swedish <term>: “term, word, phrase, mathematical operand”
—-> Latin <terminālis>: “boundary, terminal, final”
—–> English <terminal> (all meanings)

Collected English words: avatar, Transylvania, trans-, nectar, through, terminus, term, terminal

* I have seen on name sites an Indian personal name transliterated as <Taran> which is glossed as “raft, swim, heaven”, which must be a form of this word

** I have some notes on this, but I’ll save them for when I do the other half, <*néḱ>, in November.

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Word Family Friday: Queer

Teaser: torque, torch, queer

Proto-Indo-European <*terkʷ->: “to turn”
-> Anatolian
–> Hittite <𒋻𒆪𒉿𒀭𒍣> (tarkuwanzi): “to perform a round dance, to dance in twisting manner”
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Sanskrit <तर्कु> (tarku): “spindle”
-> Italic
–> Latin <torqueō>: “twist, spin, torment”
—> English <torque>
—> Latin <tortus>: “twisted, spun, tormented”
—-> Old French <tort>: “injury, misdeed”
—–> English <tort>: “injury, wrong, branch of law dealing with such”
—–> French <tort>: “fault, error”
—-> Latin <tortūra>: “twisting, torture”
—–> French <torture>: “tortue”
——> English <torture>
—-> French <torsion>: “torsion, act of twisting”
—–> English <torsion>
—-> Medieval Latin <tortia>: “twisted roll of fiber, torch”
—–> French <toche>: “torch”
——> English <torch>
—> Latin <torculum>: “wine or oil press”
—-> Italian <torchio>: “press, esp. olive oil press”
—-> French <treuil>: “winch, hoist”
—-> Albanian <tork>: “beam of an oil or wine press”
—-> Spanish <trullo>: “prison”
-> Germanic <*þwerhaz>: “cross, adverse”
–> Dutch <dwars>: “in a crosswise direction, slantwise, rebellious”
–> Middle Low German <dwer>
—> English <queer>
–> Old Norse <þvert>:
—> Swedish <tvär>: “perpendicular, sharp, sudden”
—> Danish <tvært>: “contrary to”
—> English <thwart>
–> Gothic <𐌸𐍅𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌷𐍃> (þwairhs): “angry”

Collected English words: torque, tort, torture, torsion, torch, queer, thwart

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Word Family Friday: Two

Teaser: two, twin, binary, duet, icosahedron

Proto-Indo-European <*dwóh₁>: “two”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*dwi->: “two (prefix)”
–> Ancient Greek <δι-> (di-): “two, twice (prefix)”
—> Many descendants as technical Greek borrowings
–> Latin <bi->: “two parts, twice (prefix)”
—> Many descendants as technical Latin borrowings
–> Proto-Indo-European <*dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti>: “two-ten, twenty”
—> Proto-Albanian <*wdžáti>: “twenty”
—-> Albanian <-zet>, <njëzet>: “twenty”
—> Baltic
—-> Lithuanian <dvidešimt>: “twenty”
—> Celtic <*wikantī>: “twenty”
—-> Welsh <ugain>: “twenty”
—-> Irish <fiche>: “twenty”
—–> Irish <daichead>/<dhá fhichead>: “forty, two-score”
—> Hellenic
—-> Greek <εἴκοσῐ> (eíkosi): “twenty”
—–> Greek <εἰκοσάεδρον> (eikosáedron): “solid shape with twenty sides, icosahedron”
——> English <icosahedron>
—> Indo-Iranian
—-> Indo-Aryan
—–> Sanskrit <विंशति> (viṃśatí): twenty”
—-> Iranian
—–> Avestan <vīsaiti>
—–> Persian <بيست> (bist): “twenty”
—> Italic
—-> Latin <vīgintī>: “twenty”
—–> French <vingt>: “twenty”
—–> Italian <venti>: “twenty”
—–> Spanish <veinte>: “twenty”
—–> Latin <vīcēsimu>: “twentieth”
——> English <vigesimal>
—> Tocharian <*w’īkän>: “twenty”
—-> Tocharian A <wiki>: “twenty”
—-> Tocharian A <ikam>: “twenty”
–> Proto-Indo-European <*dwis-no->: “pair, twin”
—> Latin <bīnus>: “double, in pairs”
—-> English <binary>
—> Germanic <*twinaz>: “twin, double”
—-> English <twin>
—-> German <Zwilling>: “twin”
—-> Old Norse <tvinnr>, <*tvinlingr>
—–> Icelandi <tvennur>: “pair”
—–> Norwegian <tvilling>: “twin”
—> Balto-Slavic
—-> Lithuanian <dvynys>: “twin”
—-> Russian <дво́йня> (dvójnja): “twins”

And many, many word for two. Anything below here means “two”, unless otherwise specified (English words, as always, are understood to be specified for meaning simply by being written in English)

-> Albanian <dy>
-> Balto-Slavic <*duwō>
—> Lithuanian <du>
—> Latvian <divi>
–> Slavic <*dъva> (dŭva)
—> Russian <два> (dva)
—> Polish <dwa>
-> Celtic <*dwau>
–> Welsh <dau>
–> Irish <dó>
-> Germanic <*twai>
–> English <two>
–> Dutch <twee>
–> German <zwei>
—> Yiddish <צוויי> (tsvey)
–> Icelandi <tveir>
—> Norwegian <to>
–> Gothic <𐍄𐍅𐌰𐌹> (twai)
–> Germanic <*twai-tigiwiz>: “two group-of-tens, twenty”
—> English <twenty>
—> Dutch <twintig>: “twenty”
—> German <zwanzig>: “twenty”
—-> Yiddish <צוואַנציק> (tsvantsik): “twenty”
—> Old Norse <tuttugu>: “twenty”
—-> Swedish <tjugo>: “twenty”
-> Hellenic <*dúwō>
–> Greek <δύο> (dúo)
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Indo-Aryan <*dva>
—> Sanskrit <द्व> (dvá): “two, both”
—-> Hindi <दो> (do)
—-> Sinhalese <දෙක> (deka)
—-> Telugu <ద్వయము> (dvayamu): “two, pair”
–> Iranian
—> Avestan <𐬛𐬎𐬎𐬀> (duua)
—> Persian <دو> (du)
-> Italic <*duō>
–> Latin <duo>
—> French <deux>
—> Italian <due>
—-> Italian <duetto>: “duet”
—–> English <duet>
—> Spanish <dos>
–> Oscan <𐌃𐌖𐌔> (dus)
-> Tocharian
–> Tocharian A <wu>
–> Tocharian B <wi>

Collected English words: two, di-, bi-, icosahedron, vigesimal, binary, twin, twenty, duo, duet

Hey, I notice that the Divine Twins of Proto-Indo-European mythology (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_twins) are, in PIE, “dwis-no-s deywós”, very alliterative!

Or, if English had derived “divine” natively from <*deywós>, instead of borrowing it from Latin/French, something like “*Tuney Twins” in English. Wait, that doesn’t sound very majestic. Or, as we’d say in purely Germanic English, “Watch, that doesn’t swin well muchly”.

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Word Family Friday: Thread

Teaser: thread, thresh, triage, tribade

Proto-Indo-European <*terh₁>: “to rub, turn”
-> Balto-Slavic
–> Slavic <*tèrti>: “to rub”
—> Russian <тере́ть> (terétʹ): “rub, polish, grind”
-> Germanic <*þrēaną>: “twist, turn”
–> English <throw>
–> Dutch <draaien>: “turn, play a record or cd, host a party”
–> German <drehen>: “turn, roll, veer, record film”
—> Yiddish <> (dreyen): “turn”
—-> Yiddish <דרײדל‎> (dreydl): “top, dreidel”
—–> English <dreidel>
–> Swedish <dreja>: “make on a potter wheel”
-> Hellenic
–> Ancient Greek <τρῑ́βω> (trī́bō): “rub, grind, thresh, wear away”
—> Greek <τρίβω> (trívo): “grate, chafe, rub”
—> Latin <tribas>: “lesbian”
—-> English <tribade>
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Iranian <*tarH->: “to rub, wipe off”
—> Persian: <ستردن> (setordan): “wipe, clean, shave”
—> Sogdian <ܕܣܦܪܛܪ> (dsprtr): “hand towel, handkerchief”
—-> Persian <لسپردرک> (laspardarak): “hand towel, handkerchief”
—–> Yiddish <לאַפּסערדאַק> (lapserdak): “A traditional Jewish black kaftan”
——-> English <lapserdak>: “A traditional Jewish black kaftan”
——-> Russian <лапсерда́к> (lapserdák): “lapserdak”
-> Italic
–> Latin <terō>: “rub, wear away, tread, graze, grind”
—> Latin <tritus>: “rubbed, worn away, ground”
—-> Late Latin <tritare>: “grind or crush; to beat the chaff from the wheat”
—–> French <trier>: “to sort, pick out, calibrate”
——> English <triage>
—–> Italian <tritare>: “chop, mince, dice, grind or crush”
—-> Latin <trīticum>: “a kind of wheat”
—–> Translingual <Triticum>: botanical genus name for wheat spp.
——> English <triticale>: “wheat-barley hybrid” (Triticum x Secale)
——-> English <quadrotriticale> (http://memory-alpha.wikia.com/wiki/Quadrotriticale)
-> Proto-Indo-European <*treh₁-sḱe-ti>
–> Germanic <*þreskaną>: “thresh”
—> Old English <þrescan>: “thresh, trample”
—-> English <thresh>, <thrash>
—-> Old English <þrescold>: “threshold”
—–> English <threshold>
—> German <dreschen>: “to thresh, to thrash”
—> Icelandi <þreskja>: “thresh”
—> Gothic <𐌸𐍂𐌹𐍃𐌺𐌰𐌽> (þriskan)
—-> Portuguese <triscar>: “to touch lightly”
-> Proto-Indo-European <tórh₁-mo-s>: “borehole”
–> Germanic <*þarmaz>: “intestine”
—> German <Darm>: “instestine”
—> Icelandi <þarmur>: “instestine”
–> Ancient Greek <τόρμος> (tórmos): “peg, tenon”
-> Proto-Indo-European <tréh₁-tu-s>
–> Germanic <*þrēduz>: “twisted fiber, thread”
—> English <thread>
—> German <Draht>: “wire”
—> Icelandi <þráður>: “string, thread”
?> Armenian <արածեմ> (aracem): “graze, pasture”
-> Ancient Greek <τρώγω> (trṓgō): “chew, gnaw, eat”
-> Ancient Greek <τράγος> (trágos): “male goat, lechery”
-?> Ancient Greek <τραγῳδία> (tragōidía): “epic play, tragedy” (if this is the correct etymology, it would be formed as trago-ode, goat-song, and have originally referred to the Satyr Plays, burlesque tragicomedies featuring satyrs)
—> Latin <tragoedia>: “tragedy” (theatrical meaning only)
—-> French <tragédie>: “tragedy”
—–> English <tragedy>
—-> many other descendants

Collected English words: throw, dreidel, tribade, lapserdak, triage, triticale, quadrotriticale, thresh, threshold, thread, tragedy

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Word Family Friday: Fabric + Bonus Family: Silk

Teaser: fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

Bonus family below: 絲, silk

Proto-Indo-European <*dʰabʰ->: “fit together, fitting, make”
-> Armenian <դարբին> (darbin): “blacksmith”
-> Germanic <*dabaną>: “to fit, to be fitting”
–> Icelandic <dafna>: “thrive”
–> Germanic <*daftuz>: “appropriate, convenient, apt”
—> Middle English <defte>: “skillful, convenient, gentle”
—-> English <deft>
—-> English <daft> (gentle -> meek -> silly -> crazy)
—> Middle Dutch <deftich>: “suitable, solid, weighty”
—-> Dutch <defitg>: “refined, genteel”
—-> German <deftig>: “hearty, rustic, coarse”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*dʰabʰ-ro->: “fit together” + adjective suffix -> something like “fitting, well suited, felicitous”
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Slavic <*dobrъ> (dobry): “good” (adj.)
—-> Russian <до́брый> (dóbryj): “kind, good, genial”
—-> Polish <dobry>: “good”
—-> Serbo-Croatian <до̏бар> (dȍbar): “good, well-behaved”
—-> Slavic <*dobro>: “good, goods, goodwill” (n.)
—–> Russian <добро́> (dobró): “the good, goods, approval”
—–> Slovak <dobro>: “good”
——> Translingual <Dobro>: a guitar company, a pun between Slovakian <dobro>, “good” and a contraction of “Dopyera brothers”, after the Slovakian-American founders, John and Emil Dopyera
——-> English and others <dobro>: “resonator guitar, especially a wood-bodied, single cone resonator guitar” (as innovated by Dobro)
—> Baltic
—-> Lithuanian <dabà>: “habit, character”
-> Italic <*faβros>* (from <*dʰabʰ-ro->, but lost adjective meaning, or independent <-ro> morphology?)
–> Latin <faber>: “craftsman, maker, smith”
—> Italian <fabbro>: “smith”
—> German, Dutch <Faber>: occupational surname borrowed from Latin
—> Latin <fabrica>: “workshop, smithy, industry, craft, production, fabric”
—-> Italian <fabbrica>: “factory”
—–> Turkish <fabrika>: “factory”
—-> German <Fabrik>: “factory”
—-> Russian <фа́брика> (fábrika): “factory”
—-> Old French <faverge>: “smithy”*
—–> French <forge>: “forge”
——> English <forge>
——> Italian <forgiare>: “to forge, to fashion”
——> Spanish <forja>: “forge, foundry”
—–> French <Faverges>: town in south-west France. Coincidentally, mostly a factory town, and has been since 1811.
—-> French <fabrique>: “factory” (later reborrowing from Latin)
—–> English <fabric> (original “cloth of fine fabric” meant “cloth of fine worksmanship”, later shifting meaning to “cloth of fine material”

Collected English words: deft, daft, Dobro, forge, fabric

*Seems like this must be the origin of the surname Fabergé (as in the jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé that made the Fabergé Eggs) but I haven’t been able to confirm that.


Bonus family: silk

-> Old Chinese: <*slɯ>: “silk”
–> Middle Chinese <sɨ>: “silk”
—> Mandarin <絲> (sī): “silk”
—> Cantonese <絲> (si1): “silk”
—> Vietnamese <tơ>: “raw silk, thread”
–> Wu-Min
—> Taiwanese <絲> (si): “silk”
-?> Ancient Greek <Σήρ> (Sḗr): “Chinese, silkworm”
—> Ancient Greek <Σῆρες> (Sêres): “China, the Chinese people”
—-> Latin
—> Ancient Greek <σηρῐκός> (sērikós): “silken, made of silk”
—-> Latin <sēricus>: “having to do with China, made of silk” (in most descendants, replaced by <setae> for silk and <Sīnae> and/or <čini> for China)
—–> Spanish <sirgo>: “silk”
—–> Baltic? <*selikos>??
——> West Germanic <*siolka>?
——-> English <silk>
——-> Old Norse <silki>: “silk”
——–> Swedish, Norwegian, etc. <silke>: “silk”
——> Russian <шёлк> (šolk): “silk”

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Word Family Friday: Cloth

Teaser: cloth, cloud, gluten, and a town in Croatia

Proto-Indo-European <*gəl->?: “ball up, amass”
-> Latin <globus>: “round, sphere, globe, glob, group”
–> French <globe>: “globe”
—> English <globe>
–> Vulgar Latin <globellus>
—> Spanish <ovillar>: “roll into a ball”
—> Portuguese <novelo>: “ball of thread, intrigue, plot”
–> Latin <glomus>: “ball”
—> Italian <gomitolo>: “ball of yarn”
—> Romanian <ghem>: ball of yarn”
—> Latin <agglomerare>: “roll into a ball”
—-> English <agglomerate>
–> Latin <glaeba>: “clod, soil, land”
—> Italian, Portuguese, Spanish <gleba>: “clod of dirt”
—> English <glebe>: “turf, ground, an area of land belonging to a parish”
—-> English <glebe-house> “rectory, residence of a parish priest”
—-> English <Glebe>: Many, many place names in Ireland, Canada, Australia, Virginia, etc.
-> Proto-Indo-European <*gley->: “clay, sticky”
–> Latin <glūten>: “glue”
—> Old Irish <gláed>: “glue”
—-> Irish <glae>: “glue, sticky, slime>
—–> Irish <glae glas>: “birdlime”
—> Welsh <glud>: “glue, birdlime, gluten, mess”
—> French <glu>: “glue, birdlime”
—-> English <glue>
—–> Irish <gliú>: “glue”
—> Latin <agglūtinō>: “glue to, cement to, fit closely to”
—-> English <agglutinate>
—> English, etc. <gluten>
–> Ancient Greek <γλία> (glía): “glue”
—> English <glial cell>/<neuroglia>
–> Germanic <*klajjaz>: “clay”
—> Old English <clǣġ>: “clay”
—-> English <clay>
–?-> English <clog>
—> Slavic
—-> Russian <клей> (klej): “glue”
—-> Ukranian <глей> (hlej): “clayey soil”
—–> English <gley>/<gleysol>: “A type of hydric soil, sticky, greenish-blue-grey in colour and low in oxygen.”
—-> Polish <klej>: “glue”
–> Germanic <*klibjaną>: “to stick, adhere”
—> Dutch <kleven>: “to stick, to glue”
—> German <kleben>: “to stick, to glue”
—-> German <Kleber>: “glue (informal), gluten”
—-> German <Klebstoff>: “glue”
—> English <cleave> (in the sense of to stick; distinct from English homonym&antonym <cleave> meaning “split” from PIE <*glewbʰ->. Distinction retained in Dutch <kleven> vs. <klieven>, German <kleben> vs. <klieben>)
—> Germanic <*klimbaną>: “climb” (movement by sticking to the side of something)
—-> English <climb>
—-> German <klimmen>: “climb”
–> Proto-Indo-European <*gleyt->: “cling to, stick to, adhere”
—> Germanic <*klaiþą>: “cloth, garment”
—-> English <cloth>, <clothe>, <clothes>, <clad>
—–> English <tablecloth>
——> Japanese <テーブル掛け> (tēburukake): “tablecloth”
—-> Danish <klæde>: “cloth, clothe”
—-> Icelandic <klæði>: “cloth, clothes”
—-> German <Kleid>: “dress, gown, clothes”
—–> German <Kledistoff>: “clothing material”
—> Proto-Albanian <*en-gleita>:
—-> Albanian <ngjit>: “stick, glue, adhere”
–> Proto-Indo-European <*gleh₁i-n->
—> Balto-Slavic
—-> Baltic
—–> Lithuanian <gléinė>: “wet clay”
—-> Slavic <*glìna>: “clay”
—–> Russian <гли́на> (glína)
—–> Serbo-Croatian <гли́на> (glína): “clay”
——> Serbo-Croatian <Глина> (Glina): River and town in Croatia
-> Proto-Indo-European <*gelewd->: “clump, clod”
–> Germanic <*klautaz>: “ball, lump, block, cleat”
—> English <cleat>
—> Swedish <klot>: “ball”
—> German <Kloß> (Kloss): “lump, dumpling”
—> Germanic <*klūtaz>: “lump, clod, boulder, hill”
—-> English <clot>
—-> English <clod>
—-> English <cloud> figuratively a sky-boulder/sky-hill, replacing Old English <wolcen> (welkin) and <scēo> (sky)
-> Proto-Indo-European <**glembʰ->: “mass, clasp”
–> Germanic <*klumpô>: “clasp, clamp, lump, mass”
—> English <clump>
—> Dutch <klomp>: “wooden shoe”
—-> English <clomp>
—> Old Norse <klumba>: “cudgel”
—-> English <club>
English words: globe, agglomerate, glebe-house, glue, gluten, neuroglia, clay, clog, gleysol, cleave, climb, cloth, clad, cleat, clod, clot, cloud, clump, clomp, club

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Word Family Friday: Textile

Beginning of May theme of textiles.

This is a big one. English highlights: text, texture, textile, toilet, subtle, technology, architect, dachshund, Tesla

Proto-Indo-European <*teḱs->: “weave, braid, add, establish, construct”
-> Latin <texere>: “to weave”
–> French <tisser>: “to weave, plait”
–> Spanish <tejer>: “to knit, weave”
–> Italian <tessere>: “to weave, plot”
–> Latin <textūra>: “weaving, texture”
—> French <texture>: “texture”
—> English <texture>
—> Spanish <textura>: “texture”
–> Latin <textus>: “texture or style of a work of art”
—> Medieval Latin <textus>: “treatise, text”
—-> French <texte>: “text”
—–> English <text>
—-> Russian <текст> (tekst): “text, wording, lyrics”
–> Latin <textilis>: “woven”
—> Latin <textile>: “fabric, textile”
—-> English <textile>
–> Latin <tēla>: “loom, web”
—> French <toile>: “fabric, cloth, spider web”
—-> French <toilette>: “small cloth” by extension, “washing, personal grooming” and “place for washing/performing personal grooming”
—–> English <toilet>
—> Italian <tela>: “cloth, canvas, theater curtain”
—> Spanish <tela>: “cloth”
—> Latin <subtīlis>: “fine, thin, slender” (under cloth? less cloth?)
—-> French <subtil>: “subtle”
—–> English <subtle>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*teḱs-neh₂>
–> Ancient Greek <τέχνη> (tékhnē): “craft, skill, art”
—> Ancient Greek <τεχνολογία> (tekhnología): “systematic treatment of art and craft”
—-> English <technology>
—> Latin <technicus> “technical, technology”
—-> English <technical>
—-> French <technique>: “technical”
—–> English <technique>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*tétḱ-ō>
–> Ancient Greek <τέκτων> (téktōn): “craftsman, carpenter, builder”
—> Ancient Greek <ἀρχιτέκτων> (arkhitéktōn): “chief builder, architect”
—-> Latin <architectus>: “architect, inventor, author”
—-> French <architecte>: “architect”
—–> English <architect>
—-> Russian <архите́ктор> (arxitéktor): “architect”
—> Ancient Greek <τεκτονικός> (tektonikós): “pertaining to building”
—-> Latin <tectonicus>: “pertaining to building, architectural”
—–> English <tectonic>: “relating to construction or architecture; (geology) relating to the Earth’s lithosphere”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*tḗtḱ-ti>: “to hew”
–> Balto-Slavic <*téśtei>: “to hew”
—> Baltic
—-> Latvian <test>: “to beat, knock about”
—> Slavic <*tesàti>: “to hew”
—-> Russian <теса́ть> (tesátʹ): “to adze, cut, hew”
—-> Polish <ciosać>: “to hew”
–> Indo-Iranian
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit <तक्षति> (tákṣati): “to cut, split, fashion out of wood”
—–> Telugu <తక్షణి> (takṣaṇi): “adze”
—> Iranian <*taš->: “to make, construct; to cut”
—-> Avestan <𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬌 𐬙𐬁𐬱𐬙𐬌> (auui tāšti): “make with carpentry”
—-> Persian <تش> (taš): “hatchet, axe”
—-> Old Armenian <տաշեմ> (tašem): “to rough hew, plane, polish, smooth”
—–> Armenian <տաշել> (tašel): “to cut, hew, polish, smooth”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*tetḱ-(dʰ)lo->: “adze” (woodworking tool)
–> Slavic <*tesla>: “adze”
—> Russian <тесло́> (tesló): “adze”
—> Serbo-Croatian <те̏сла> (tȅsla): “adze”
—-> Serbo-Croatian <Тесла> (Tesla): occupational surname
—–> English <tesla>: “ISU derived unit of magnetic inductivity” (after Nikolai Tesla)
—> Middle Polish <ciosła>: “adze”
—-> Polish <cieślica>: “adze”
—-> Polish <cieśla>: “carpenter”
–> Celtic <*tāxslos>: “adze”
—> Primitive Irish <ᚈᚐᚂᚐᚌᚅᚔ> (talagni): “adze”
—-> Irish <tál>: “adze”
–> Germanic <þehslō>: “adze”
—> German <Dechsel>: “adze”
—> Swedish <däxel>: “adze”
-> Germanic <*þahsuz>: “badger” (building animal)
–> Frankish <þahs>: “badger”
—> Dutch <das>: “badger”
—-> Afrikaans <das>, <dassie>: “hyrax”
—–> English <dassie>: “hyrax”
—> Vulgar Latin <taxus>, <taxō>: “badger”
—-> Italian <tasso>: “badger”
—–> Italian <Tasso>: Lombard noble house who established postal systems in Italy and the Holy Roman Empire
——> French <de la Tour et Tassis>: the same noble house
——-> German <Thurn und Taxis>: the same noble house
——–> English <Princess TNT>: “Gloria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis”
—-> Old French <taisson>: “badger”
—–> Middle French <taisniere>: “badger den”
——> French <tanière>: “den, lair, hideout”
—-> Spanish <tejón>: “badger”
—–> Mexican Spanish <tejón>: “coati”
–> Old High German <dahs>: “badger”
—> German <Dachs>: “badger”
—-> German <Dachshund>: “breed of dog for hunting badgers and other burrow animals”
—–> English <dachshund>
—> Yiddish <דאַקס> (daks): “badger”
–> Gothic
—> Visigothic
—-> Portuguese <texugo>: “badger”
–> Germanic <*agiþahsijǭ>: “lizard, newt” (lizard-badger)
—> English <ask>: “newt” (dialectal)
—> Dutch <hagedis>: “lizard”
—-> Afrikaans <akkedis>: “lizard”
—> German <Echse>, <Eidechse>: “lizard”
—-> Yiddish <עקדיש> (ekdish): “scorpion”

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US Presidential Election Data PCA

Finally have a good visualization of my election data.

Confirmed hypothesis: The biggest split in clustering states by politics is between the Confederacy and Everyone Else.

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Word Family Friday: Sun

Proto-Indo-European <*sóh₂wl̥>: “sun”
-> Balto-Slavic <*saul>: “sun”
–> Lithuanian <sáulė>: “sun”
–> Slavic <*sъlnьce>: “sun”
—> Russian <со́лнце> (sólnce): “sun”
—> Polish <słońce>: “sun”
-> Celtic <*sāwol>
–> Brythonic <heol>
—> Welsh <haul>: “sun”
—> Cornish <howl>: “sun”
–> Old Irish <súil>: “eye” (from the sun as the eye of the sky)
—> Irish <súil>: “eye”
—> Manx <sooill>: “eye”
-> Italic <*swōl>: “sun”
–> Latin <sōl>: “sun”
—> Spanish <sol>: “sun”
—> Italian <sole>: “sun”
—> Breton <Sul>: “sun”, replaced Brythonic <heol>
—> Vulgar Latin <*soliculus>: “sun”
—-> French <soleil>: “sun”
—> Latin <sōlāris>: “related to the sun, sunny”
—-> English, etc. <solar>
—-> Latin <sōlārium>: “sundial, sunny terrace”
—–> English, etc. <solarium>
—–> Dutch <zolder>: “attic”
-> Ancient Greek <ἥλιος> (hḗlios): “sun, God of the Sun”
–> Greek <ήλιος> (ílios): “sun”
–> New Latin <helium>: “noble gas with atomic number 2, helium” (first identified in the spectral emission lines of light from the Sun)
—> English <helium>
—> Translingual <He>: chemical symbol for Helium
-> Indo-Iranian <*súHar>: “sun”
–> Iranian
—> Avestan <𐬵𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬭𐬇> (huuarə̄): “sun”
—> Persina <خور> (xōr): “sun”
—-> Persian <خورشیدی> (xoršidi, Khurshid, Khorshid): “sunlight, male given name”
—–> Turkish <Hurşit>: “male given name”
–> Indo-Aryan
—> Sanskrit <स्वर्> (svàr): “sun”
—-> Sanskrit <सूर्य> (sū́rya): “sun, God of the Sun”
—–> Hindi <सूरज> (sūraj): “sun”
—–> Tamil <சூரியன்> (cūriyaṉ): “sun”
—–> Sanskrit <सूर्य नमस्कार> (sū́rya namaskāra): “sun salutation, yoga routine”
——-> English <Surya Namaskara>/<Sun salutation>: “yoga routine”
-> Germanic <*sōwulō>: “sun”
–> Old Norse, Icelandic <sól> :”sun”
—> Norwegian, Swedish, Danish <sol>: “sun”
—-> Norweigan <soloppgang>: “sunrise” (sun-up-going)
-> Proto-Indo-European <*sh̥₂uén>, oblique form of <*sóh₂wl̥>
–> Germanic <*sunnǭ>: “sun”
—> English <sun>
—-> English <sunglasses>
—–> Japanese <サングラス> (sangurasu): “sunglasses”
—> Dutch <zon>: “sun”
—> German <Sonne>: “sun”
—-> Yiddish <זון> (zun): “sun”
—> Germanic <sunthraz>: “south, sunward”
—-> Old English <sūþ>: “south”
—–> English <south>
—–> French <sud> (Latin words for cardinal directions, in this case <auster>/<meridies>, were replaced or supplemented in most Romance languages by borrowings from Old English. Weird.)
—–> Italian <sud>
—–> Spanish <sur>
—–> Portuguese <sul>
—-> Dutch <zuid>: “south”
—–> German <Süd>: “south” (replaced older German <sunt>)
—-> Old Norse <suðr>
—–> Norweigan <sør>: “south”
—–> Swedish <söder>: “south”
—–> Danish <syd>: “south”

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Word Family Friday: Light

Proto-Indo-European <*lewk->: “shine, see”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lewk-to-s>
–>Germanc <*leuhtą>: “light”
—> English <light>, Scots <licht>
—> German <Licht>: “light, candle”
—-> Yiddish <ליכט> (likht) : “candle”
—> Old Norse, Icelandic <ljós>, Norwegian <ljos>, Swedish <ljus>, etc.: “light”
—-> Old Norse <Ljósálfr>: “Light Elf”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*léwk-s>
–> Latin <lūx>, “light”
—> Translingual <lux>, ISU unit of illumniation (1 lumen/m²)
—> Latin <lūmen>
—> Latin <lūcifer>: “light bringer, morning star (Venus)”
—–> English, etc. <Lucifer>: Christian Antagonist, esp. before his fall, based on a game of translation telephone of the Hebrew <הֵילֵל> in Isaiah.
—–> English <lucifer>: A brand of self-lighting match
——> Dutch <lucifer>: “match”
—> Latin <lūceō>: “shine”
—-> Latin <translūceō>: “shine through”
–> Armenian <լուցել> (lucʿel): “to kindle”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lewk-ós>
–> Celtic <*loukos>: “white”/”eyesight”
—> Old Irish <lóg>: “value, worth”
—-> Irish <luachmhar>: “valuable, precious”
–> Greek <λευκός> (leukós): “bright, shining, white”
—> German <Leukämie>: “leukemia” (coined as <λευκ-αἷμᾰ> (leuk-aima) “white-blood”)
—-> English <leukemia>
–> Indo-Iranian
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit रोक ‎(roká): “light”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lówk-os>: ‎”open space, clearing”
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Baltic
—-> Latvian <lauks>, Lithuanian <laũkas>: “field, outdoors”
–> Germanic <*lauhaz>: “clearing”
—> English <lea>,<leigh>, <ley>: “meadow”
—-> English <Leigh>: habitational surname
—-> English <Beverley>: “beaver meadow” (place name)
—–> English <Beverley>, <Beverly>: habitational surname
——> English <Beverley>, <Beverly>: personal name
—> Dutch <loo>: “clearing”
—-> Dutch <Waterloo>: place name
–> Indo-Iranian
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit लोक ‎(loká): “free space”
–> Latin <lūcus>: “sacred grove”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lowk-yo->
–> Slavic <*lučь>: “ray, beam”
—> Russian <луч> (luč): “ray, beam”
—> Polish <łuczywo>: “torch”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lowk-s-neh₂>: “moon”
–> Latin <lūna>: “moon”
–> Slavic <*lunà>: “moon”
—> Russian <луна́> (luná): “moon”
—> Polish <łuna>: “radiance, glow”
-> Indo-Iranian:
–> Indo-Aryan:
—> Sanskrit: <रोचते> ‎(rocate): “to shine, be resplendent, enlighten”
–> Iranian
—> Avesta <raočah> “day”
—-> Persian <روز>(rōz): “day”
—–> Persian <نوروز> (Nouruz): “New Day, New Year’s Day in Zoroastrian Year”
——> English, etc. <Nowruz>: “Persian/Zoroastrian New Year’s Holiday”
—> Avesta <raočant->
—-> Persian <روشن> (rowšan): “light, bright”
—-> Bactrian <روشنک> (Roshanak): “bright” (personal name. Most notably, Alexander the Great’s Bactrian wife)
—–> Greek <Ρωξανη> (Roxane): personal name
——> Latin, English, French, Spanish, etc. <Roxane>, <Roxanne>, <Roxana>, <Rosana>, etc.: personal name
-> Proto-Indo-European <??>: “lynx” (from its glowing eyes)
–> Greek <λύγξ> (lúnks): “lynx”
—> Latin <lynx>: “lynx”
—-> French, English <lynx>: “lynx”
—-> Spanish <lince>: “lynx”
—–> Tagalog <linse>: “lynx”
–> Germanic <luhsaz>: “lynx”
—> Old English <lox>: “lynx”
—> Dutch <los>: “lynx”
—> German <Luchs>: “lynx”
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Baltic
—-> Lituanian <lūšis>: “lynx”
—> Slavic <*rỳsь>: “lynx”
—-> Russian <рысь> (rysʹ): “lynx”
—-> Polish <ryś>: “lynx”
—-> Romanian <râs>: “lynx”

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