Word Family Friday: Easter

Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews->: “dawn, east”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsōs>: “Goddess of Dawn”
–> Greek <ἠώς>‎ (ēṓs): “dawn, Goddess of Dawn, east”
–> Indo-Iranian <*Háwšās>
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit <उषस्> (uṣás/Ushas): “dawn, Goddess of Dawn”
—–> Hindu <उषा> (uṣā): “dawn”
–> Latin <aurōra>: “dawn, Goddess of Dawn”
—> Italian, Protuguese <aurora>: “dawn”
—> English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese <aurora>, French <aurore>: “An atmospheric phenomenon created by charged particles from the sun striking the upper atmosphere, creating coloured lights in the sky.”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews-ro->
–> Germanic <*Austrǭ>: “Goddess of Spring, springtime”
—> English <Easter>: “festival of springtime, later, Christian festival”*
—> German <Ostern>: “festival of springtime, later, Christian festival”*
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Slavic <*ùtro>: “dawn”
—-> Russian <у́тро> ‎(útro): “morning”
—-> Polish <jutro>: “tomorrow”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ewsḗr> “what is at dawn”
–> Greek <ᾱ̓ήρ> (āḗr): “morning mist, mist, wind, air, color of the sky”
—> Latin <āēr>: “air”
—-> English, French <air>, Spanish <aire>, etc.: “air”
—-> Italian <aria>: “air, song”
—–> English <aria>: “Musical piece written for a solo voice in an opera.”
—> Classic Syriac <ܐܐܪ> (aar): “air, breeze”
—> Greek <ἀέρος> (aéros): “of the air”
—-> English, Italian, Spanish <aero->: prefix denoting a connection to air or aircraft.
—–> <aerobic>, <aerodynamic>, <aerosol>, etc.
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsreh₂>
–> Greek <αὔρᾱ> (aúrā): “fresh air, breeze, steam”
—> Latin <aura>: “air, breeze”
—-> English <aura>: “distinctive atmosphere or quality, characteristic impression of a person”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsri>
–> Greek <αύριο> (ávrio): “tomorrow, soon”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂wōsrih₂>
–> Celtic <*wāsrī>
—> Welsh <gwawr>: “dawn”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews-teros>
–> Germanic <*austraz>: “east”
—> Old English <ēast>
—-> English <east>
—-> Old French <est>
—–> French <est>, Italian <est>, Spanish <este>: “east” (Latin words for cardinal directions, in this case <oriens>/<levant>, were replaced or supplemented in most Romance languages by borrowings from Old English. Weird.)
—> German <Ost>: “east”
—-> German <Österreich>: “Eastern-Realm, Austria”
—–> New Latin (, etc.) <Austria>: “Austria”
–> Latin <auster>: “southerly wind, south”
—> Italian <ostro>, Romanian <austru>: “southerly wind”
—> English (, etc.) <Australia>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂é-h₂us-o->: “to glow”
–> Latin <aurum>: “gold”
—> Catalan, French <or>, Spanish, Italian <oro>, Irish <ór>, etc.: “gold”
—> Translingual <Au>: chemical symbol for gold
–> Tocharian A <wäs>: “gold”

nota bene: “Aurora Australis”

*Only Germanic langauges use cognates to “Easter” to refer to the Christian holiday. Most other languages use descendants of the Hebrew <פָּסַח> (pasách): “Passover”. For example, Italian <Pasqua>, Russian <Па́сха> (Pásxa), Irish <Cáisc>.

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