Word Family Friday: Light

Proto-Indo-European <*lewk->: “shine, see”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lewk-to-s>
–>Germanc <*leuhtą>: “light”
—> English <light>, Scots <licht>
—> German <Licht>: “light, candle”
—-> Yiddish <ליכט> (likht) : “candle”
—> Old Norse, Icelandic <ljós>, Norwegian <ljos>, Swedish <ljus>, etc.: “light”
—-> Old Norse <Ljósálfr>: “Light Elf”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*léwk-s>
–> Latin <lūx>, “light”
—> Translingual <lux>, ISU unit of illumniation (1 lumen/m²)
—> Latin <lūmen>
—> Latin <lūcifer>: “light bringer, morning star (Venus)”
—–> English, etc. <Lucifer>: Christian Antagonist, esp. before his fall, based on a game of translation telephone of the Hebrew <הֵילֵל> in Isaiah.
—–> English <lucifer>: A brand of self-lighting match
——> Dutch <lucifer>: “match”
—> Latin <lūceō>: “shine”
—-> Latin <translūceō>: “shine through”
–> Armenian <լուցել> (lucʿel): “to kindle”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lewk-ós>
–> Celtic <*loukos>: “white”/”eyesight”
—> Old Irish <lóg>: “value, worth”
—-> Irish <luachmhar>: “valuable, precious”
–> Greek <λευκός> (leukós): “bright, shining, white”
—> German <Leukämie>: “leukemia” (coined as <λευκ-αἷμᾰ> (leuk-aima) “white-blood”)
—-> English <leukemia>
–> Indo-Iranian
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit रोक ‎(roká): “light”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lówk-os>: ‎”open space, clearing”
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Baltic
—-> Latvian <lauks>, Lithuanian <laũkas>: “field, outdoors”
–> Germanic <*lauhaz>: “clearing”
—> English <lea>,<leigh>, <ley>: “meadow”
—-> English <Leigh>: habitational surname
—-> English <Beverley>: “beaver meadow” (place name)
—–> English <Beverley>, <Beverly>: habitational surname
——> English <Beverley>, <Beverly>: personal name
—> Dutch <loo>: “clearing”
—-> Dutch <Waterloo>: place name
–> Indo-Iranian
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit लोक ‎(loká): “free space”
–> Latin <lūcus>: “sacred grove”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lowk-yo->
–> Slavic <*lučь>: “ray, beam”
—> Russian <луч> (luč): “ray, beam”
—> Polish <łuczywo>: “torch”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*lowk-s-neh₂>: “moon”
–> Latin <lūna>: “moon”
–> Slavic <*lunà>: “moon”
—> Russian <луна́> (luná): “moon”
—> Polish <łuna>: “radiance, glow”
-> Indo-Iranian:
–> Indo-Aryan:
—> Sanskrit: <रोचते> ‎(rocate): “to shine, be resplendent, enlighten”
–> Iranian
—> Avesta <raočah> “day”
—-> Persian <روز>(rōz): “day”
—–> Persian <نوروز> (Nouruz): “New Day, New Year’s Day in Zoroastrian Year”
——> English, etc. <Nowruz>: “Persian/Zoroastrian New Year’s Holiday”
—> Avesta <raočant->
—-> Persian <روشن> (rowšan): “light, bright”
—-> Bactrian <روشنک> (Roshanak): “bright” (personal name. Most notably, Alexander the Great’s Bactrian wife)
—–> Greek <Ρωξανη> (Roxane): personal name
——> Latin, English, French, Spanish, etc. <Roxane>, <Roxanne>, <Roxana>, <Rosana>, etc.: personal name
-> Proto-Indo-European <??>: “lynx” (from its glowing eyes)
–> Greek <λύγξ> (lúnks): “lynx”
—> Latin <lynx>: “lynx”
—-> French, English <lynx>: “lynx”
—-> Spanish <lince>: “lynx”
—–> Tagalog <linse>: “lynx”
–> Germanic <luhsaz>: “lynx”
—> Old English <lox>: “lynx”
—> Dutch <los>: “lynx”
—> German <Luchs>: “lynx”
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Baltic
—-> Lituanian <lūšis>: “lynx”
—> Slavic <*rỳsь>: “lynx”
—-> Russian <рысь> (rysʹ): “lynx”
—-> Polish <ryś>: “lynx”
—-> Romanian <râs>: “lynx”

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