Word Family Friday: Trans-

Teaser: through, avatar, trans-, nectar

Proto-Indo-European <*terh₂->, <*treh₂->: “to cross over, pass through, overcome”
-> Celtic <*ter>
–> Irish <thar>: “over, by, past, through, beyond”
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Sanskrit <तरति> (tarati): “pass over, float, swim*
—> Hindi <तैराना> (tairānā): “to float”*
—> Sanskrit <अवतार> (avatāra): “avatar, appearance of a deity on earth, distinguished person” (“down-cross”, “descended from the sky”)
—-> Hindi <अवतार> (avtār): “descent, respected person, translation, incarnation”
—-> English <avatar>
—-> Telugu <అవతారము> (avatāramu): “avatar, incarnation, metamorphosis”
—-> Thai <อวตาร> (à-wá-dtaan): “avatar, monarch, sock puppet”
—–> Thai <พงศาวดาร> (pong-sǎa-wá-daan): “lineage of kings, history, (biblical book of) Chronicles”
—?> Japanese <あまくだり> (amakudari): “avatar, descent from heaven, to award a high-level bureaucrat with a high-paying job after retirement”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*tr̥h₂-n̥t-s> (resultative?, ~”the other side”)
–> Celtic
—> Irish <trá>: “then, indeed, however”
–> Italic
—> Latin <trāns>: “across, beyond”
—-> Transylvania (beyond the woods)
—-> French <très>: “very”
—-> Spanish <tras>: “after, beyond”
—-> English <trans-> “Across, through, over, beyond, to or on the other side of, outside of”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*térh₂-dʰrom> (instrumentive, equivalent to “through-tron”)
–> Hellenic
—> Ancient Greek <τέρθρον> (térthron): “end, extremity, end of the sail-yard”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*néḱ-tr̥h₂>: “death-overcome, unperishing”**
–> Hellenic
—> Greek <νέκταρ> (néktar): “drink of the gods, nectar”**
—-> Latin <nectar>: “nectar”
—–> English <nectar>
—–> Italian <nettare>: “nectar”
—–> Russian <некта́р> (nektár): “nectar”
-> Proto-Indo-European
–> Celtic
—> Irish <trí>: “through”
—> Welsh <drwy>: “through, by means of”

-> Proto-Indo-European <*terh₂-kʷe> (distributive “through-and” or “through-each”)
–> Germanic <*þurhw>, <*þerhw>: “through”
—> English <through>, <thorough>
—> German <durch>: “through, via, by means of”
—-> Yiddish <דורך> (durkh): “through”
—> Gothic <𐌸𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌷> (þairh): “through”

?> Proto-Indo-European <*térmn̥>: “boundary”
–> Hellenic
—> Ancient Greek <τέρμα> (térma): “finish line, goal, conclusion”
—> Latin <terminus>: “boundary, limit, end”
—-> English <terminus>
—-> French <terme>: “limit, period of time, word or phrase especially in a specialized field”
—–> English <term> (all meanings)
——> Norwegian, Swedish <term>: “term, word, phrase, mathematical operand”
—-> Latin <terminālis>: “boundary, terminal, final”
—–> English <terminal> (all meanings)

Collected English words: avatar, Transylvania, trans-, nectar, through, terminus, term, terminal

* I have seen on name sites an Indian personal name transliterated as <Taran> which is glossed as “raft, swim, heaven”, which must be a form of this word

** I have some notes on this, but I’ll save them for when I do the other half, <*néḱ>, in November.

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