Word Family Friday: Two

Teaser: two, twin, binary, duet, icosahedron

Proto-Indo-European <*dwóh₁>: “two”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*dwi->: “two (prefix)”
–> Ancient Greek <δι-> (di-): “two, twice (prefix)”
—> Many descendants as technical Greek borrowings
–> Latin <bi->: “two parts, twice (prefix)”
—> Many descendants as technical Latin borrowings
–> Proto-Indo-European <*dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti>: “two-ten, twenty”
—> Proto-Albanian <*wdžáti>: “twenty”
—-> Albanian <-zet>, <njëzet>: “twenty”
—> Baltic
—-> Lithuanian <dvidešimt>: “twenty”
—> Celtic <*wikantī>: “twenty”
—-> Welsh <ugain>: “twenty”
—-> Irish <fiche>: “twenty”
—–> Irish <daichead>/<dhá fhichead>: “forty, two-score”
—> Hellenic
—-> Greek <εἴκοσῐ> (eíkosi): “twenty”
—–> Greek <εἰκοσάεδρον> (eikosáedron): “solid shape with twenty sides, icosahedron”
——> English <icosahedron>
—> Indo-Iranian
—-> Indo-Aryan
—–> Sanskrit <विंशति> (viṃśatí): twenty”
—-> Iranian
—–> Avestan <vīsaiti>
—–> Persian <بيست> (bist): “twenty”
—> Italic
—-> Latin <vīgintī>: “twenty”
—–> French <vingt>: “twenty”
—–> Italian <venti>: “twenty”
—–> Spanish <veinte>: “twenty”
—–> Latin <vīcēsimu>: “twentieth”
——> English <vigesimal>
—> Tocharian <*w’īkän>: “twenty”
—-> Tocharian A <wiki>: “twenty”
—-> Tocharian A <ikam>: “twenty”
–> Proto-Indo-European <*dwis-no->: “pair, twin”
—> Latin <bīnus>: “double, in pairs”
—-> English <binary>
—> Germanic <*twinaz>: “twin, double”
—-> English <twin>
—-> German <Zwilling>: “twin”
—-> Old Norse <tvinnr>, <*tvinlingr>
—–> Icelandi <tvennur>: “pair”
—–> Norwegian <tvilling>: “twin”
—> Balto-Slavic
—-> Lithuanian <dvynys>: “twin”
—-> Russian <дво́йня> (dvójnja): “twins”

And many, many word for two. Anything below here means “two”, unless otherwise specified (English words, as always, are understood to be specified for meaning simply by being written in English)

-> Albanian <dy>
-> Balto-Slavic <*duwō>
–>Baltic
—> Lithuanian <du>
—> Latvian <divi>
–> Slavic <*dъva> (dŭva)
—> Russian <два> (dva)
—> Polish <dwa>
-> Celtic <*dwau>
–> Welsh <dau>
–> Irish <dó>
-> Germanic <*twai>
–> English <two>
–> Dutch <twee>
–> German <zwei>
—> Yiddish <צוויי> (tsvey)
–> Icelandi <tveir>
—> Norwegian <to>
–> Gothic <𐍄𐍅𐌰𐌹> (twai)
–> Germanic <*twai-tigiwiz>: “two group-of-tens, twenty”
—> English <twenty>
—> Dutch <twintig>: “twenty”
—> German <zwanzig>: “twenty”
—-> Yiddish <צוואַנציק> (tsvantsik): “twenty”
—> Old Norse <tuttugu>: “twenty”
—-> Swedish <tjugo>: “twenty”
-> Hellenic <*dúwō>
–> Greek <δύο> (dúo)
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Indo-Aryan <*dva>
—> Sanskrit <द्व> (dvá): “two, both”
—-> Hindi <दो> (do)
—-> Sinhalese <දෙක> (deka)
—-> Telugu <ద్వయము> (dvayamu): “two, pair”
–> Iranian
—> Avestan <𐬛𐬎𐬎𐬀> (duua)
—> Persian <دو> (du)
-> Italic <*duō>
–> Latin <duo>
—> French <deux>
—> Italian <due>
—-> Italian <duetto>: “duet”
—–> English <duet>
—> Spanish <dos>
–> Oscan <𐌃𐌖𐌔> (dus)
-> Tocharian
–> Tocharian A <wu>
–> Tocharian B <wi>

Collected English words: two, di-, bi-, icosahedron, vigesimal, binary, twin, twenty, duo, duet

Hey, I notice that the Divine Twins of Proto-Indo-European mythology (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_twins) are, in PIE, “dwis-no-s deywós”, very alliterative!

Or, if English had derived “divine” natively from <*deywós>, instead of borrowing it from Latin/French, something like “*Tuney Twins” in English. Wait, that doesn’t sound very majestic. Or, as we’d say in purely Germanic English, “Watch, that doesn’t swin well muchly”.

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