Word Family Friday: Easter

Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews->: “dawn, east”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsōs>: “Goddess of Dawn”
–> Greek <ἠώς>‎ (ēṓs): “dawn, Goddess of Dawn, east”
–> Indo-Iranian <*Háwšās>
—> Indo-Aryan
—-> Sanskrit <उषस्> (uṣás/Ushas): “dawn, Goddess of Dawn”
—–> Hindu <उषा> (uṣā): “dawn”
–> Latin <aurōra>: “dawn, Goddess of Dawn”
—> Italian, Protuguese <aurora>: “dawn”
—> English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese <aurora>, French <aurore>: “An atmospheric phenomenon created by charged particles from the sun striking the upper atmosphere, creating coloured lights in the sky.”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews-ro->
–> Germanic <*Austrǭ>: “Goddess of Spring, springtime”
—> English <Easter>: “festival of springtime, later, Christian festival”*
—> German <Ostern>: “festival of springtime, later, Christian festival”*
–> Balto-Slavic
—> Slavic <*ùtro>: “dawn”
—-> Russian <у́тро> ‎(útro): “morning”
—-> Polish <jutro>: “tomorrow”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ewsḗr> “what is at dawn”
–> Greek <ᾱ̓ήρ> (āḗr): “morning mist, mist, wind, air, color of the sky”
—> Latin <āēr>: “air”
—-> English, French <air>, Spanish <aire>, etc.: “air”
—-> Italian <aria>: “air, song”
—–> English <aria>: “Musical piece written for a solo voice in an opera.”
—> Classic Syriac <ܐܐܪ> (aar): “air, breeze”
—> Greek <ἀέρος> (aéros): “of the air”
—-> English, Italian, Spanish <aero->: prefix denoting a connection to air or aircraft.
—–> <aerobic>, <aerodynamic>, <aerosol>, etc.
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsreh₂>
–> Greek <αὔρᾱ> (aúrā): “fresh air, breeze, steam”
—> Latin <aura>: “air, breeze”
—-> English <aura>: “distinctive atmosphere or quality, characteristic impression of a person”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂éwsri>
–> Greek <αύριο> (ávrio): “tomorrow, soon”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂wōsrih₂>
–> Celtic <*wāsrī>
—> Welsh <gwawr>: “dawn”
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂ews-teros>
–> Germanic <*austraz>: “east”
—> Old English <ēast>
—-> English <east>
—-> Old French <est>
—–> French <est>, Italian <est>, Spanish <este>: “east” (Latin words for cardinal directions, in this case <oriens>/<levant>, were replaced or supplemented in most Romance languages by borrowings from Old English. Weird.)
—> German <Ost>: “east”
—-> German <Österreich>: “Eastern-Realm, Austria”
—–> New Latin (, etc.) <Austria>: “Austria”
–> Latin <auster>: “southerly wind, south”
—> Italian <ostro>, Romanian <austru>: “southerly wind”
—> English (, etc.) <Australia>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*h₂é-h₂us-o->: “to glow”
–> Latin <aurum>: “gold”
—> Catalan, French <or>, Spanish, Italian <oro>, Irish <ór>, etc.: “gold”
—> Translingual <Au>: chemical symbol for gold
–> Tocharian A <wäs>: “gold”

nota bene: “Aurora Australis”

*Only Germanic langauges use cognates to “Easter” to refer to the Christian holiday. Most other languages use descendants of the Hebrew <פָּסַח> (pasách): “Passover”. For example, Italian <Pasqua>, Russian <Па́сха> (Pásxa), Irish <Cáisc>.

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Word Family Friday: Cat

For my wife’s brithday

Late Egyptian <čaute>?: “cat”; in competition with <𓏇𓇋𓅱𓃠> (mjw)
?> Classical Syriac <ܩܛܘ> (qaṭṭu): “cat”
?-> Arabic <قِطّ> (qiṭṭ): “cat”
?-> Hebrew <חָתוּל> (khatúl): “cat”
?-> Old Armenian <կատու> (katu): “cat”
—> Armenian <կատու> (katu): “cat”
-?-> Georgian <კატა> (ḳaṭa): “cat”
-?-> Byzantine Greek <καττα>? (katta): “cat”
-?-> Ottoman Turkish <کدی> (kädi)
—-> Turkish <kedi>: “cat”
-> Berber <kaddîska>: “wildcat”
-> Nubian <kadís>: “cat”
-?> Latin <cattus> (replaces previous <fēlēs> with introduction of domestic cats)
—> Greek <γάτα> (gáta): “cat”; replaces <ἴλουρος> (aílouros) with introduction of domestic cats)
—> Italian <gatto>: “cat”
—> French <chat>: “cat”
—> Spanish <gato>: “cat”
—> Basque <katu>: “cat”
—> Old Irish <catt>: “cat”
—-> Irish <cat>: “cat”
—–> Irish <Cat Sidhe>, <Cat Sí>: “fairy cat”
-?-> Brythonic <*kaθ>: “cat”
—-> Welsh <cath>: “cat”
—-> Breton <kazh>: “cat”
—> Germanic <*kattuz>: “cat”
—-> English <cat>
—–> English <kitty>: “cat” (dimunitive)
——> Navajo <gídí>: “cat”
—-> Old High German <kazza>
—–> German <Katze>
—–> Yiddish <קאַץ> (kats): “cat”
—-> Old Norse <kǫttr>: “cat”
—–> Icelandic <köttur>: “cat”
—–> Norwegian, Swedish <katt>: “cat”
——> Finnish <katti>: “cat” (colloquial)
—-> Dutch, Afrikaans <kat>: “cat”
—–> Zulu <ikati>: “cat”
—> Proto-Slavic <*kotъ> (kotŭ): “male cat”, (previous word, <*mačьka>, was retained in South Slavic, but mostly replaced in East and West Slavic with introduction of domestic cats)
—-> Russian <кот> (kot): “male cat”
—-> Ukrainian <кіт> (kit): “male cat”
—-> Polish <kot>: “cat, esp. male”
—-> Proto-Slavic <*kotъшка> (kotŭška): “female cat”
—–> Russian <ко́шка> (kóška): “cat, esp. female”
——> Estonian <kass>: “cat”
—–> Ukrainian <кі́шка> (kíška): “cat, esp. female”

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Word Family Friday: Henchman&Palfrey

Wrapping up March Of Horses with two last, smaller families.

Proto-Indo-European <*kankest->: “horse”
-> Germanic <*hangistaz>: “horse, stallion”
–> Old Saxon <*hengist>
—> Old English <Hengist>: Personal Name*
—> Old English <hengest>: “horse, gelding, stallion”
—-> Old English <*hengstmann>: “groom” (“horse-man”)**
—–> English <henchman>
—> Danish, Norwegian, Swedish <hingst>: “stallion”
—> Dutch <hengst>: “stallion”
—-> Afrikaans <hings>: “stallion”
—> German <Hengst>: “stallion”
—> Old Norse <hestr>: “horse”
—-> Danish, Norwegian <hest>: “horse”
—-> Icelandic <hestur>: “horse”
—-> Faroese <hestur>: “stallion”
—–> English <Hestur>: one of the Faroe Islands
—-> Elfdalian <est>: “horse”
-> Brythonic
–> Welsh <caseg>: “mare”
–> Breton <kazeg>: “mare”


Celtic <*uɸorēdos> (uforedos): “horse”
-> Brythonic <*gworuɨð>: “horse”
–> Welsh <gorwydd>: “horse” (less common than <ceffyl>)
-> Gaulish <*werēdos>
–> Latin <verēdus>: “fast or light breed of horse”
–?> Spanish <veredas>: “horse path, sidewalk”
—> Late Latin <paraverēdus>: “extra horse, post horse”
—-> French <palefroi>: “small riding horse, palfrey”
—–> English <palfrey>: “small riding horse”
—-> German <Pferd>: “horse” (also the chess piece)
—-> Dutch <paard>: “horse” (also the chess piece)

*One of the two legendary brothers who led the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain (along with Horsa). Possibly a reflex of the Indo-European Divine Horse Twins.
**Only in the sense of someone who tends to horses, not in the sense of bridegroom.

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Word Family Friday: Cavalry

?> Turkic
–> Turkish <kaval>: adjunct of <at>, “horse”
?> Saka (Khotanese) <kabä>: horse?
-?> Slavic <*kobyla>: “mare (female horse)”
—> Russian <кобы́ла> (kobýla): “mare”
—> Polish <kobyła>: “mare”
?> Ancient Greek <καβάλλης> (kabállēs): “nag, pony”
?> Celtic <*capallos>
–> Irish <capall>: “horse”
–?> Scots <kelpie>: “horse-like water spirit”
—-> English <kelpie>
—> Manx <cabbyl>: “horse”
—-> Manx <cabyll-ushtey>: “horse-like water spirit”
–> Brythonic <*kappilos>: “horse”
—> Welsh <ceffyl>: “horse”
—-> Welsh <Ceffyl Dŵr>: “horse-like water spirit”
—-> English <Cavall>, <Cabal>: King Arthur’s favorite hunting dog
—> Breton <kefel>: “horse”
–> Gaulish <capallos>: “horse”
–?> Latin <caballus>: “pack horse, nag” (starts to replace Classical <equus> in Late Latin)
—-> Old French <cheval>: “horse”
—–> French <cheval>: “horse”
—-> Norman <qùeva>: “horse”
—–> Jersey <chéva>: “horse”
—–> Guernsey <ch’fa>: “horse”
—-> Spanish <caballo>: “horse” (also the chess piece)
—–> Classical Nahuatl <cahuāllo>: “horse”
—–> Tagalog <kabayo>: “horse”
—-> Late Latin <caballārius>: “horseman, rider”
—–> Old Provençal <cavalier>: “horseman, rider”
——> French <chevalier>: “knight” (also the chess piece)
——-> French <chevalerie>: “knighthood, nobility, chivalry”
——–> English <chivalry>
——> Italian <cavaliere>: “rider, cavalry, knight, gentleman”
——-> English <cavalier>
——-> Italian <cavalleria>: “cavalry, chivalry”
——–> French <cavalerie>: “cavalry”
———> English <cavalry>
—–> Spanish <caballero>: “gentleman, cowboy, horseman, knight”

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Word Family Friday: Mare

On St. Patrick’s Day, I reveal the secret reason I did horses in March.

Also, this one is really cool and just might go back all the way to the original domestication of horses in Central Asia. Maybe—just maybe—the Thai word for the knight piece in chess and the Welsh word for the knight piece in chess might be borrowings from the same source 5500 years ago.

?> Sino-Sibetan <*k-m-raŋ>
–> Old Chinese <*mrāʔ>
—> Mandarin <馬> (mǎ): “horse” (also the chess piece)
—> Taiwanese <馬> (bé): “horse”
—> Proto-Tai <*maːᶜ>: “horse”
—-> Thai <ม้า> (máa): “horse” (also the chess piece)
—-> Lao <ມ້າ> (mā): “horse”
–> Burma-Tibetan <*mrāŋ>: “horse”
—> Tibetan <རྨང> ‎(rmang): “horse” (archaic)
?> Korean <말> (mal): “horse”
-?> Japanese <馬>/<うま> (uma): “horse” (also a shogi piece)
?> Mongolian <морь> ‎(morʹ): “horse” (also the chess piece)
?> Manchu <ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ> (morin): “horse”
?> Proto-Indo-European <*márkos>: “horse”?, “wild horse”?
–> Celtic <*markos>: “horse”
—> Brythonic <*marx>: “horse”
—-> Welsh <march>: “horse”
—-> Cornish <margh>: “horse”
—-> Breton <marc’h>: “horse”
—> Irish <marc>: “horse” (archaic, replaced by <capall>)
—> Celtic <*markākos>: “horseman”
—-> Welsh <marchog>: “horseman, knight” (also the chess piece)
—-> Irish <marcach>: “horseman, cavalry”
–> Germanic <*marhaz>: “horse”
—> Frankish <*marh>: “horse”
—-> Frankish <*marhskalk>: “horse-servant, stable boy”
—–> Italian <maniscalco>: “farrier, blacksmith”
—–> Old French <marescal>: “marshal” (person in charge of the horses for an army. Later, very high ranked officer)
——> French <maréchal>: “marshal”
——> French <maréchal-ferrant>: “farrier”
——> English <marshal>
——> Spanish <mariscal>: “marshal”
—–> Dutch <maarschalk>: “marshal” (meaning changed by influence from French)
—> Lombardic <marah>: “horse”
—-> Lombardic <marah-hemma>: “horse-pen”
—–> Italian <Maremma>: place name, the coastal plain of southern Tuscany
—> Old Norse <marr>: “horse” (mostly outcompeted by <hestr> in descendants)
—> Germanic <*marhijō>: “mare, female horse”
—-> English <mare>
—-> Dutch <merrie>: “mare”
—-> Old Norse <merr>: “mare”
—–> Icelandic <meri>: “mare”
—–> Swedish <märr>: “mare”
??> Sanskrit <मृग> (mṛga): generic wild hoofed animal: deer, antelope, etc.

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Word Family Friday: Course

Proto-Indo-European <*k̑ers->: “to run”
-> Latin <currō>: “to run”
–> French <corir>: “to run”
—> English <courier>
—> French <courant>: “running, current of water or electricity”
—-> English <current>
–> Latin <cursus>: “race, path, serires of events”
—> French <cours>: “course”
—-> English <course>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*kr̥sos>
–> Celtic <*karros>: “wagon”
—> Old Irish<carr>: “wagon”
—-> Irish <carr>: “cart, automobile”
—> Brythonic <*karr>
—-> Welsh <car>: “automobile”
—> Gaulish <*karros>
—-> Latin <carrus>: “wagon”
—–> Italian <carro>: “wagon, cart, van, truck”
—–> Spanish, Protuguese <carro>: “wagon, automobile”
—–>Old Northern French <char>: “cart”
——> Anglo-Norman <carre>: “cart”
——-> English <car>: “wheeled vehicle, automobile”
——> Old Northern French <chariot>: “little cart”
——-> French <chariot>: “trolley”
——-> English <chariot>
–?-> Old Northern French <carier>: “to carry”
—–>English <carry>
—–> Old Northern French <cariage>: “transportion, carrying”
——> English <carriage>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*ḱr̥sos>
–> Germanic <*hrussą>: “horse”
—> English <horse>
—-> Māori <hōiho>: “horse”
—> Frankish <rosse>: “horse”, replaced by <cheval>
—-> French <rosse>: “asshole”
—> German <Ross>: “horse”, regional/poetic/archaic, replaced by <Pferd>
—> Old Norse <hross>: “horse”
—-> Old Norse <hross-hvalr>: “horse-whale, walrus”
—–> Danish <hvalros>: “walrus”
——> English <walrus>
-> Proto-Indo-European <*ḱors->: “to hurry”
–> Germanic <*hurzaną>: “hurry”
—> English <hurry>
—> Norwegian <hurre>: “whirl around”

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Word Family Friday: Ekwos

Word Family Fridays this month will be all about horses. Turns out the PIEs really liked horses.

Proto-Indo-European <h₁éḱwos>: “horse”
-> Latin <equus>: “horse”, replaced by <caballus> in Late Latin and most descendants
–> Latin <equester>: “pertaining to riding horses, pertaining to cavalry, (substantive) horseman”
—> English <equestrian>
—> French <équestre>: “equestrian”
-> Greek <ἵππος> ‎(híppos): “horse”
–> Greek <Φίλιππος > ‎(Phílippos): “Fond of Horses” (Given name)
—-> Translingual: <Philippines>*: Place name (after Philipp II of Spain)
–> New Latin <hippo->: “horse”
—> New Latin <hippopotamus>: “hippopotamus” (“river-horse”)
–> Greek <ἱππόδρομος> (hippódromos): “track for horse or chariot races”
-> Proto-Celtic <ekʷos>: “horse”
–> Gaulish <epos>: “horse”
—> Gaulish <Epona>: Horse Goddess, derived as either “on a horse” or “great mare”
–> Old Irish <ech>: “horse”
—> Irish <each>: “horse” archaic/poetic, outcompeted by <capall>
—> Manx <agh>: “horse”
–> Brythonic <*eb>: “horse”
—> Brythonic <*ebol>: “small/young horse”
—-> Welsh <ebol>: “foal”
-> Germanic <*ehwaz>: “horse”, outcompeted by <*hrussą> (and secondarily replaced in many descendants by a variety of other words)
–> Old English <eoh>: “horse”, outcompeted by <hors>
–> Icelandic <jór>: “horse” (archaic/poetic), outcompeted by <hestur>
–> Germanic <*ehwaraidō>: “horse riders”
—> Old English <ēored>: “cavalry”
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Indo-Aryan
—> Sanskrit <अश्व> ‎(áśva): “horse”
—-> Hindi <अश्व> ‎(aśv): “horse”
—-> Sinhalese <අශ්වය>‎ (aśvaya): “horse”
—-> Telugu: <అశ్వము> ‎(aśvamu): “horse”
—-> Sanskrit <अश्वक> (aśvaka): “horseman”
—–> Prakrit <आभगन> (ābhagana): “Pashtun, Afghan”
——> Persian <افغان> (afğân): “Pashtun, Afghan”
——-> Arabic <أَفْغَانِيّ> (ʾafḡāniyy): “Afghan”
——-> English, etc. <Afghan>
——–> English <afghan>: “blanket or throw, usually crocheted or knitted” (imported from Afghanistan after the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1839-1842)
——-> Persian <افغانستان> (afğânestân): “Land of the Pashtuns, Afghanistan”
——–> English, etc. <Afghanistan>
–> Iranian
—> Persian <اسب> ‎(asb): “horse”
—> Ossetian <ефс> (efs): “mare”
—> Pashto <آس> (ās): “horse”
-> Anatolian <*ʔeḱu->
–> Hittite <𒀲𒆳𒊏𒍑> (ekkus): “horse”
-> Proto-Armenian
–> Armenian <էշ> ‎(ēš): “donkey”
-?-> Latin <asinus>: “donkey”
—-> Latin <assellus>: “small/young donkey”
—–> Germanic <*asiluz>: “donkey”
——> English <ass>
-> Tocharian
–> Tocharian A <yuk>: “horse”
–> Tocharian B <yakwe>: “horse”

*Note: this is how I remember which consonant is doubled in “Philippines”, which I would otherwise get wrong every time. “philosophy” is one ‘l’; hippopotamus” is two ‘p’s.

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Word Family Friday: Smile

Proto-Indo-European <*smey->: “to laugh, to be glad”
-> Balto-Slavic
–> Slavic <*smьjàti>: “to laugh”
—> Polish <śmiaćsię>: “to laugh”
—> Russian <смеяться> (smejátʹsja): “to laugh, to mock”
-> Germanic <*smīlijaną>: “to smile”
–> English, Danish, Norwegian <smile>, Swedish <smil>, etc.: “to smile”
–> Germanic <*smerōną>: “to mock, deride”
—> English, Scots <smirk>
-> Indo-Iranian
–> Indo-Aryan
—> Sanskrit <स्मि> (smi): “to smile, to laugh”>
—-> Hindi <स्मित> (smit): “to smile”
-> Italic <*smeiros>
–> Latin <mīrus>: “wonderful, amazing”
—> French <mirer>: “to look at”
—-> French <miroir>: “mirror”
—–> English <mirror>
—-> French, English <mirage>: “mirage”
—> Latin <mīrāculum>: “object of wonder”
—-> French, Catalan, English <miracle>, Spanish <milagro>, etc.: “miracle”
—> Latin <admīror>: “admire”
—-> French <admirer>, English <admire>: “admire”
—> Latin <mīrandus>, “which is to be wondered at”
—-> English <Miranda>: given name (first used in “The Tempest”)
—–> Translingual <Miranda>: Moon of Uranuas
—-> Spanish, Portuguese, Italian <miranda>: “outlook, a place from which something can be viewed”
—–> Spanish, Portuguese, Italian <Miranda>: habitational surname
——> English <Miranda warning>
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California Drought

In good news, the drought in California is finally starting to get better.

Charting percent of the land area of California in each category of drought over time:

Period of Extreme Drought, 2014 to 2017

The Drought Ends, July 2016 to Feb 2017


Long term context

from http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/ data

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The Annotated Capernaum

Capernaum is a poem by Lewis Spence, which was set to music by Ed Miller and appears on his album, Border Background (1989). Miller’s arrangement is also the title song on the Tannahill Weaver’s album, Capernaum (1994).

I own both of those albums, and it’s a catchy song, so it gets stuck in my head a lot. But there’s a lot to the lyrics that I was having trouble following; so here’s my Annotated Capernaum:

If a’ the blood shed at thy Tron
If all the blood shed at your Tron1
Embro, Embro
Edinburgh, Edinburgh
Continue reading

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